Barking is a natural behaviour of dogs. While incessant barking can become problematic, there are plenty of effective ways to minimise it. But first you need to understand what your dog is trying to say.
It may need something
Much like a baby crying, barking can be your dog’s way of getting something done. It could be hungry, cold or scared, or perhaps it wants to go outside, for example.
Your dog likely considers itself a core part of your family. So when a person or animal approaches your dog may bark to ward them off and/or alert you. Your dog just wants to keep you safe. Ways to minimise this could be to add fences or close curtains if your dog sends a lot of time inside.
Your dog doesn’t have a job, may only go to school once a week, and certainly doesn’t cook its own food. That’s leaves your dog with a lot of empty time each day and with that much free time, it's bound to get bored. Barking might be their way of getting your attention so they can play with you. Remember, a tired dog is a quiet dog; good pet care involves exercising together, regularly.
When you leave the house, your dog might get lonely and possibly scared and will cope with barking. Try leaving your dog a toy or something to keep it occupied until you get home. If the barking doesn't stop, consider speaking with a vet about your dogs separation anxiety.
Genetics also play a role in how often dogs bark. Retrievers, bulldogs, greyhounds and mastiffs are usually fairly quiet, while Chihuahuas, terriers, poodles and some herding breeds tend to yap more.
The best way to curb your dog’s enthusiasm is to reply calmly, as yelling back could sound as though you’re joining in. Instead, teach your dog the word “quiet”.